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Whether forms of state capitalism

There are three key arguments  First  state capitalism in the twenty first century combines majority ownership of state own enterprises with a hybrid form that includes minority equity investments as well as other forms of support for private firms  such as subsidiz loans . Second  all of those forms are present around the world  both in rich and poor countries  and in most cases they co exist.

Although some countries appear

To have a prevalence of the minority investor mode while other countries emphasize the majority mode  in most cases the two modes jointly occur. Third  the emergence of those modes is explain by a host of environmental  political  and historical factors  and Malaysia Phone Number List the economic performance of each mode depends on certain contingencies that should affect their nefits and costs  such as the economic distortions that they may generate. Key concepts include  The form of state capitalism prevailing in the twenty first century is different from that observ in the second half of the twentieth century. Governments  particularly in emerging markets  have justifi the rise of such forms of hybrid capitalism as a way to solve market failures.

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Private companies  in contrast

See the rise of new state own enterprises  firms with minority government ownership  and private companies back by loans of development banks as threats. are regard as nign or pernicious  very little has en known about these new forms of government India Phone Number intervention. Questions remain about the various institutional mechanisms by which states exercise control  why state capitalism reemerg and in which form  and its effects on both firm performance and state governance. Author Abstract In this paper we document the extent and reach of state capitalism around the world and explore its economic implications.

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